New primates described from 1 January 1990 to 1st September 2018

Global Wildlife Conservation – IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Russell A. Mittermeier
Chief Conservation Officer, Global Wildlife Conservation, and Chair of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

Anthony B. Rylands
Primate Conservation Director, Global Wildlife Conservation, and Deputy Chair of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group

One hundred and seventeen primates—species and subspecies—have been described since 1990: 56 from Madagascar, 12 from Africa, 22 from Asia, and 27 from the Neotropics. 69 of the primates described since 1990 are prosimians, 44 are monkeys, and four are apes.

Ninety-one primates—species and subspecies—have been described since 2000: 52 from Madagascar, five from Africa, 16 from Asia, and 18 from the Neotropics.  63 of the primates described since 2000 are prosimians, 24 are monkeys, and four are apes.

Six new genera have been described: Callibella M. G. M. van Roosmalen and T. van Roosmalen, 2003 (the dwarf marmoset from the Central Amazon); Rungwecebus Davenport, Stanley, Sargis, De Luca, Mpunga, Machaga & Olson, 2006 (the Kipunji from Tanzania); Carlito Groves and Shekelle, 2010, for the Philippine tarsier; Cheracebus Byrne et al., 2016, for the collared titi monkeys (torquatus group); Plecturocebus Byrne et al., 2016, for the Amazonian titis of the donacophilus and moloch groups; and Paragalago Masters, Génin, Couette,,Groves, Nash, Delpero & Pozzi. 2017, for East African small galagids.

Please note that this list is presented without any judgment as to the validity or otherwise of the various primates described, except for some recent descriptions (in red) where posterior publications have indicated that they are either not valid or are junior synonyms.

Numbers of new species and subspecies

 

Since 1990

Since 2000

  Madagascar 

56

52

  Africa 

12

05

  Asia

22

16

  Neotropics

27

18

  TOTAL

117

91

 

 

 

  Prosimians

69

63

  Monkeys

44

24

  Apes

4

4

 

Prosimians

 

1. Nycticebus kayan Munds, Nekaris & Ford, 2013

Kayan slow loris

2. Loris tardigradus parvus Gamage, Groves, Marikar, Turner, Padmalal & Kotagama, 2017

Northwestern red slender loris

3. Loris lydekkerianus uva Gamage, Groves, Marikar, Turner, Padmalal & Kotagama, 2017

Uva slender Loris

Pseudopotto martini Schwartz, 1996

False potto

4. Perodicticus potto stockleyi Butynski & De Jong, 2007

Mount Kenya potto

5. Tarsius lariang Merker & Groves, 2006

Palu tarsier

6. Tarsius tumpara Shekelle, Groves, Merker & Supriatna, 2008

Siau Island tarsier 

7. Tarsius wallacei Merker, Driller, Dahruddin, Wirdateti, Sinaga, Perwitasari-Farajallah and Shekelle, 2010 

Wallace’s tarsier

8. Tarsius spectrumgurskyae Shekelle, Groves, Maryanto & Mittermeier, 2017

Gursky’s spectral tarsier, Manado spectal tarsier

9. Tarsius supriatnai Shekelle, Groves, Maryanto & Mittermeier, 2017

Supriatna’s tarsier, Bumbulan tarsier

10. Galagoides rondoensis Honess in Kingdon, 1997

Rondo dwarf galago

11. Galagoides zanzibaricus udzungwensis Honess in Kingdon, 1997

Udzungwa Dwarf Galago

12. Galagoides kumbirensis Svensson, Bersacola, Mills, Munds, Nijman, Perkin, Masters, Couette, Nekaris & Bearder, 2017

Angolan dwarf galago

13. Sciurocheirus makandensis Ambrose, 2013

Makandé squirrel galago

14. Microcebus ravelobensis Zimmerman, Cepok, Rakotoarison, Zietemann & Radespiel, 1998

Golden-brown mouse lemur or Lac Ravelobe mouse lemur

15. Microcebus tavaratra Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000

Tavaratra mouse lemur

16. Microcebus sambiranensis Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000

Sambirano mouse lemur

17. Microcebus berthae Rasoloarison, Goodman & Ganzhorn, 2000

Madame Berthe’s mouse lemur

18. Microcebus lehilahytsara Roos and Kappeler in Kappeler, Rasoloarison, Razafimanantsoa, Walter & Roos, 2005

Goodman’s mouse lemur

 

19. Microcebus mittermeieri Louis, Coles, Andriantompohavana, Sommer, Engberg, Zaonarivelo, Mayor & Brenneman, 2006

Mittermeier’s mouse lemur

20. Microcebus jollyae Louis, Coles, Andriantompohavana, Sommer, Engberg, Zaonarivelo, Mayor & Brenneman, 2006

Jolly’s mouse lemur

 

21. Microcebus simmonsi Louis, Coles, Andriantompohavana, Sommer, Engberg, Zaonarivelo, Mayor & Brenneman, 2006

Simmons’ mouse lemur

 

22. Microcebus mamiratra Andriantompohavana, Zaonarivelo, Engberg, Randriamampionona, McGuire, Shore, Rakotonomenjanahary, Brenneman & Louis, 2006

Nosy Be mouse lemur

 

 

Microcebus lokobensis Olivieri, Zimmermann, Randrianambinina, Rassoloharijaona, Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski & Radespiel, 2007

A junior synonym of Microcebus mamiratra Olivieri et al., 2006

23. Microcebus bongolavensis Olivieri, Zimmermann, Randrianambinina, Rassoloharijaona, Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski & Radespiel, 2007

Bongolava mouse lemur

 

24. Microcebus danfossi Olivieri, Zimmermann, Randrianambinina, Rassoloharijaona, Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski & Radespiel, 2007

Ambarijeby mouse lemur

 

25. Microcebus macarthurii Radespiel, Olivieri, Rasolofoson, Rakotondratsimba, Rakotonirainy, Rasoloharijoana, Randrianambinina, Ratsimbazafy, Ratelolahay, Randriamboavonjy, Rasolofoharivelo, Craul, Rakotozafy & Randrianarison, 2008

Anjiahely mouse lemur

26. Microcebus margotmarshae Louis Jr., Engberg, McGuire, McCormick, Randriamampionona, Ranaivoarisoa, Bailey, Mittermeier & Lei, 2008

Margot Marsh’s or Antafindro mouse lemur

27. Microcebus arnholdi Louis Jr., Engberg, McGuire, McCormick, Randriamampionona, Ranaivoarisoa, Bailey, Mittermeier & Lei, 2008

Arnhold’s or Montagne d’Ambre mouse lemur

28.Microcebus gerpi Radespiel, Ratsimbazafy, Rasoloharijaona, Raveloson, Andriaholinirini, Rakotondravony, Randrianarison & Randrianambinina, 2011

The Gerp’s mouse lemur

29. Microcebus marohita Rasoloarison, Weisrock, Yoder, Rakotondravony & Kappeler, 2013

Marohita mouse lemur

30. Microcebus tanosi Rasoloarison, Weisrock, Yoder, Rakotondravony & Kappeler, 2013

Anosy mouse lemur

31. Microcebus manitrata Hotaling, Foley, Lawrence, Bocanegra, Blanco, Rasoloarison, Kappeler, Barrett, Yoder and Weisrock, 2016

Bemanasy mouse lemur

32. Microcebus ganzhorni Hotaling, Foley, Lawrence, Bocanegra, Blanco, Rasoloarison, Kappeler, Barrett, Yoder and Weisrock, 2016

Ganzhorn's mouse lemur

33. Microcebus boraha Hotaling, Foley, Lawrence, Bocanegra, Blanco, Rasoloarison, Kappeler, Barrett, Yoder and Weisrock, 2016

Nosy Boraha mouse lemur

Cheirogaleus ravus Groves, 2000

Large iron-grey dwarf lemur. Groeneveld et al. (2009) clarified that C. ravus is synonymous with C. major

34. Cheirogaleus minusculus Groves, 2000

Lesser iron-grey dwarf lemur

35. Cheirogaleus lavasoensis Thiele, Razafimahatratra & Hapke, 2013 

Lavasoa dwarf lemur

36. Cheirogaleus andysabini Lei, McLain, Frasier, Taylor, Bailey, Engberg, Ginter, Nash, Randriamampionona, Groves, Mittermeier & Louis, Jr., 2015 

Montagne d’Ambre dwarf lemur

37. Cheirogaleus shethi Frasier, Lei, McLain, Taylor, Bailey, Ginter, Nash, Randriamampionona, Groves, Mittermeier & Louis Jr., 2016 

Ankarana or Sheth’s dwarf lemur

38. Cheirogaleus grovesi Lei, Frasier, Taylor, Bailey, Roberts, Nash, Randriamanana, Mittermeier & Louis Jr., 2017

Groves', Andringitra or Haute Matsiatra Dwarf Lemur

39. Mirza zaza Kappeler & Roos in Kappeler, Rasoloarison, Razafimanantsoa, Walter & Roos, 2005

Northern giant mouse lemur

40. Hapalemur griseus ranomafanensis Rabarivola, Prosper, Zaramody, Andriaholinirina and Hauwy, 2007

Ranomafana bamboo lemur

41. Hapalemur griseus gilberti Rabarivola, Prosper, Zaramody, Andriaholinirina and Hauwy, 2007

Beanamalao bamboo lemur

42. Phaner furcifer pallescens Groves & Tattersall, 1991

Pale fork-marked lemur

43. Phaner furcifer parienti Groves & Tattersall, 1991

Sambirano fork-marked lemur

44. Phaner furcifer electromontis Groves & Tattersall, 1991

Montagne d’Ambre fork-marked lemur

45. Lepilemur aeeclis Andriaholinirina, Fausser, Roos, Rabarivola, Ravoarimanana, Zinner, Thalmann, Ganzhorn, Meier, Hilgartner, Walter, Zaramody, Langer, Hahn, Zimmermann., Radespiel, Craul, Tomiuk, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Antafia sportive lemur

 

 

 

46. Lepilemur randrianasoloi Andriaholinirina, Fausser, Roos, Rabarivola, Ravoarimanana, Zinner, Thalmann, Ganzhorn, Meier, Hilgartner, Walter, Zaramody, Langer, Hahn, Zimmermann., Radespiel, Craul, Tomiuk, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Bemeraha sportive lemur

 

 

 

47. Lepilemur sahamalazensis Andriaholinirina, Fausser, Roos, Rabarivola, Ravoarimanana, Zinner, Thalmann, Ganzhorn, Meier, Hilgartner, Walter, Zaramody, Langer, Hahn, Zimmermann., Radespiel, Craul, Tomiuk, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Sahamalaza sportive lemur

 

 

48. Lepilemur mittermeieri Rabarivola, Zaramody, Fausser, Andriaholinirina, Roos, Zinner, Marcel & Rumpler, 2006

Mittermeier’s sportive lemur

49. Lepilemur ahmansonorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Tsiombikibo sportive lemur

 

 

50. Lepilemur betsileo Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Betsileo sportive lemur

 

 

 

51. Lepilemur fleuretae Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney and Brenneman, 2006

Andohahela sportive lemur

 

 

 

52. Lepilemur grewcockorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Anjiamangirana sportive lemur

 

 

53. Lepilemur hubbardorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Zombitse sportive lemur

 

 

 

54. Lepilemur jamesorum Louis Jr., Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney and Brenneman, 2006

Manombo sportive lemur

 

 

 

55. Lepilemur milanoii Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Daraina sportive lemur

 

 

 

56. Lepilemur petteri Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Petter’s sportive lemur

 

 

 

57. Lepilemur seali Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Seal’s sportive lemur

 

 

 

58. Lepilemur tymerlachsonorum Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Nosy Be sportive lemur

59. Lepilemur wrightae Louis, Engberg, Lei, Geng, Sommer, Randriamampionona, Randriamanana, Zaonarivelo, Andriantompohavana, Randria, Prosper, Ramaromilanto, Rakotoarisoa, Rooney & Brenneman, 2006

Wright’s sportive lemur

 

60. Lepilemur otto Craul, Zimmermann, Rasoloharijaona, Randrianambinina & Radespiel 2007

Ambodimahabibo sportive lemur

Lepilemur manasamody Craul, Zimmermann, Rasoloharijaona,Randrianambinina & Radespiel 2007 

Considered a junior synonym of L. grewcocki Louis Jr. et al., 2006 (see note at bottom of table¹)

61. Lepilemur scottorum Lei, Engberg, Andriantompohavana, McGuire, Mittermeier, Zaonarivelo, Brenneman & Louis Jr., 2008

Masoala sportive lemur

 

62. Lepilemur hollandorum Ramaromilanto, Lei, Engberg, Johnson, Sitzmann and Louis, 2009

Mananara-nord  sportive lemur

63. Avahi unicolor Thalmann & Geissmann, 2000

Sambirano woolly lemur

64. Avahi cleesei Thalmann & Geissmann, 2005

Bemeraha woolly lemur

65. Avahi peyrierasi Zaramody, Fausser, Roos, Zinner, Andriaholinirina, Rabarivola, Norscia, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Peyriéras’ woolly lemur

66. Avahi meridionalis Zaramody, Fausser, Roos, Zinner, Andriaholinirina, Rabarivola, Norscia, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Southern woolly lemur

67. Avahi ramanantsoavanai Zaramody, Fausser, Roos, Zinner, Andriaholinirina, Rabarivola, Norscia, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006

Manombo woolly lemur [described by Zaramody et al. (2006) as  a subspecies of meridionalis, but Andriantompohavana et al. (2007) considered it to be a full species]

68. Avahi betsileo Andriantompohavana, Lei, Zaonarivelo, Engberg, Nalanirina, McGuire, Shore, Andrianasolo, Herrington, Brenneman, & Louis, 2007

Betsileo woolly lemur

 

69. Avahi mooreorum Lei, Engberg, Andriantompohavana, McGuire, Mittermeier, Zaonarivelo, Brenneman & Louis Jr., 2008

Masoala woolly lemur

 

Old World monkeys – Asia

 

70. Macaca pagensis siberu Fuentes & Olson, 1995

Siberut macaque

71. Macaca leucogenys Cheng Li, Chao Zhao & Peng-Fei Fan, 2015

White-cheeked Macaque

72. Macaca munzala Sinha, Datta, Madhusudan & Mishra, 2005

Arunachal macaque

73. Presbytis melalophos bicolor Aimi and Bakar, 1992

Sumatran sureli

74. Semnopithecus auratus ebenus Brandon-Jones, 1995

Wulsin’s ebony leaf monkey

75. Pygathrix cinereus Nadler, 1997

Grey-shanked douc langur

[First described as a  subspecies of Pygathrix nemaeus]

76.Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis Wang, Jiang & Li, 1998

Hubei golden snub-nosed monkey

77. Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis Wang, Jiang & Li, 1998

Qinling golden snub-nosed monkey

78. Rhinopithecus strykeri Geissmann, Ngwe Lwin, Saw Soe Aung, Thet Naing Aung, Zin Myo Aung, Tony Htin Hla, Grindley & Momberg, 2010

Burmese snub-nosed monkey

Trachypithecus geei bhutanensis Wangchuk, Inouye & Hare, 2003 

Bhutan langur²

Macaca thibetana guiahouensis Y.-X. Wang & Jiang in Jiang, Wang, Y.-X. & Wang, Q.-S., 1996

Not considered valid in Mittermeier et al. (2013

Macaca thibetana huangshanensis Jiang & Wang in Jiang, Wang, Y.-X. & Wang, Q.-S., 1996 

Not considered valid in Mittermeier et al. (2013) 

79. Trachypithecus cristatus selangorensis Roos, Nadler & Walter, 2008

West Malaysian silvered langur

Old World monkeys – Africa

 

80. Miopithecus ogouensis Kingdon, 1997

Northern talapoin

81. Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis Colyn, 1999

White-nosed moustached monkey

82. Cercopithecus erythrogaster pococki Grubb, Lernould & Oates, 1999

Nigeria white-throated guenon

83. Cercopithecus lomamiensis Hart, Detwiler, Gilbert, Burrell, Fuller, Emetshu, Hart, Vosper, Sargis & Tosi, 2012

Lesula

84. Colobus badius semlikiensis Colyn, 1991

Semliki red colobus

85. Procolobus badius epieni Grubb & Powell, 1999

Niger Delta red colobus

86. Rungwecebus kipunji (Jones, Ehardt, Butynski, Davenport, Mpunga, Machaga & De Luca, 2005)

 

Highland mangabey [First described in the genus Lophocebus. Given its own genus Rungwecebus by Davenport et al., 2006]

New World monkeys

 

87. Callibella humilis (Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Fonseca, 1998)

Black-crowned dwarf marmoset

[First described in the genus Callithrix. Given its own genus Callibella by M.G.M. van Roosmalen and T. van Roosmalen (2003), see also Aguiar and Lacher (2003)]

88. Callithrix nigriceps Ferrari & Lopes, 1992

Black-headed marmoset

89. Callithrix mauesi Mittermeier, Ayres & Schwarz, 1992

Maués marmoset

90. Callithrix argentata marcai Alperin, 1993

Marca’s marmoset

91. Callithrix saterei Sousa e Silva Jr & Noronha, 1998

Sateré marmoset

Callithrix manicorensis Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Rylands, 2000

Manicoré marmoset. A synonym of M. marcai. See Garbino (2014)

92. Callithrix acariensis Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeier & Rylands, 2000

Rio Acarí marmoset

93. Mico rondoni Ferrari, Sena, Schneider, and Silva Jr., 2010

Rondon’s marmoset

94. Saguinus fuscicollis mura Röhe, Silva Jr., Sampaio & Rylands, 2009

Gray-fronted saddleback tamarin

95. Leontopithecus caissara Lorini and Persson, 1990

Black-faced lion tamarin

96. Cebus kaapori Queiroz, 1992

Ka’apor capuchin. A junior synonym of Cebus flavius (Schreber, 1774), see Oliveira and Langguth (2006).

Cebus queirozi Pontes & Malta in Pontes, Malta & Asforra, 2006

Blond capuchin³

97. Aotus jorgehernandezi Defler & Bueno, 2007

Hernández-Camacho’s night monkey

98. Callicebus bernhardi Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen & Mittermeier, 2002

Prince Bernhard’s titi monkey

99. Callicebus stephennashi Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen & Mittermeier, 2002

Stephen Nash’s titi

100. Callicebus personatus barbarabrownae Hershkovitz, 1990

Blond titi

101. Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999

Coimbra-Filho’s titi

102. Callicebus aureipalatii Wallace, Gómez, A. Felton & A. M. Felton, 2006

Madidi titi monkey

102. Callicebus caquetensis Defler, Bueno & García, 2010

Caquetá titi

103. Callicebus vieirai Gualda-Barros, Nascimento & Amaral, 2012

Vieira’s titi

104. Callicebus miltoni Dalponte, Silva & Silva-Júnior, 2014

Milton’s titi

105. Callicebus urubambensis Vermeer and Tello-Alvarado, 2015 

Urubamba brown titi

106. Pithecia isabela Marsh, 2014

Isabel’s saki

107. Pithecia cazuzai Marsh, 2014

Cazuza’s saki

108. Pithecia mittermeieri Marsh, 2014

Mittermeier’s Tapajós saki 

109. Pithecia rylandsi Marsh, 2014

Rylands’ bald-faced saki

110. Pithecia pissinatti Marsh, 2014

Pissinatti’s bald-faced saki

111. Cacajao hosomi Boubli, Silva, Amado, Hrbek, Pontual & Farias, 2008

Neblina black uakari

112. Cacajao ayresi Boubli, Silva, Amado, Hrbek, Pontual & Farias, 2008

Ayres’ black uakari

Lagothrix lugens defleri Mantilla-Meluk, 2013 

Defler’s woolly monkey

Lagothrix lugens sapiens Mantilla-Meluk, 2013 

Caquetá woolly monkey

Apes

 

113. Nomascus annamensis Van Ngoc Thinh, Mootnick, Vu Ngoc Thanh, Nadler & Roos, 2010

Northern buff-cheeked gibbon

114. Hoolock hoolock mishmiensis Choudhury, 2013

Mishmi Hills hoolock gibbon

115. Hoolock tianxing Peng-Fei Fan, Kai He, Xing Chen, Ortiz, Bin Zhang, Chao Zhao, Yun-Qiao Li. Hai-Bo Zhang, Kimock, Wen-ZhiWang, Groves, Turvey, Roos, Helgen & Xue-Long Jiang, 2017

Skywalker hoolock gibbon or Gaoligong hoolock gibbon

116. Pongo tapanuliensis Nurcahyo, Meijaard, Nowak, Fredriksson  & Groves in Nater, Mattle-Greminger, Nurcahyo, Nowak, Manuel, Desai, Groves, Pybus, Sonay, Roos, Lameira, Wich, Askew, Davila-Ross, Fredriksson, Valles, Casals, Prado-Martinez, Goossens, Verschoor, Warren & Singleton, 2017 

Tapanuli orangutan

 

¹Zinner et al. (2007) examined conflicting results in the genetic analysis of sportive lemurs in northwest Madagascar; those within the range of what was once considered to be Lepilemur dorsalis.  Since the type localities of L. dorsalis Gray, 1871 and L. grandidieri Forsyth Major, 1894, were both “Northwest Madagascar”, the proper name of one or two of the new species from the region (sahamalazensis, grewcocki, mittermeieri, tymlerachsoni) could be either of these two.  The true “dorsalis”, as such, has not been identified, and no attempt has been made to identify grandidieri, formerly a junior synonym of dorsalis. Genetic analysis of the holotypes of dorsalis and grandidieri is needed to resolve this.  Zinner et al. (2007) indicated, therefore, that tymerlachsoni and/or mittermeieri might be junior synonyms.  They also indicated that L. manasamody Craul et al., 2007 is probably a junior synonym of L. grewcocki Louis Jr. et al. 2006—sampling sites were less than 2 km apart, with no evident geographic barrier—but “further testing is necessary”. Under any circumstances, Zinner et al. (2007) concluded that “the number of species in NW Madagascar is rather less than it had seemed to be as of May, 2007.”

²Brandon-Jones (2005) reported that “Wangchuk et al. (2003) had described and published photographs of a population they recognized as a new subspecies of golden leaf monkey from Bhutan.  Under the stricter criteria of availability introduced in the latest (fourth) edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999), Article 16.1 insists that every new name published after 1999 must explicitly be indicated as intentionally new.  Wangchuk et al. (2003) failed to satisfy this requirement as they treated the subspecific name as available from an unpublished report (Wangchuk, 2003). T[rachypithecus] g[eei] bhutanensis is therefore a nomen nudum. Unless or until it is properly published, it should be cited in a publication only as an unavailable junior synonym of T. geei or T. pileatus. Authors who recognize the subspecies should consider it nameless. Tom Gnoske (pers. comm..) told me that the capped leaf monkey has apparently entered territory formerly exclusive to T. geei by crossing a man-made bridge, constructed in about 1980 over the Manas River in east Bhutan.  The alleged new subspecies requires confirmation as it may only constitute a resulting hybrid population” (p.1).  See also Choudhury (2008).

 

³ A junior synonym of Cebus flavius (Schreber, 1774), see Oliveira and Langguth (2006).

References

Aguiar, J. M. and Lacher Jr., T. E. 2003. On the morphological distinctiveness of Callithrix humilis Van Roosmalen et al. 1998. Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 11–18.

Aimi, M. and Bakar, A. 1992. Taxonomy and distribution of Presbytis melalophos group in Sumatra, Indonesia. Primates 33: 191–206.

Alperin, R. 1993. Callithrix argentata (Linnaeus, 1771): considerações taxonômicas e descrição de subespécie nova. Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi, Sér. Zool. 9(2): 317–328.

Ambrose, L. 2013. Sciurocheirus makandensis sp. nov. Makandé Squirrel Galago. In: The Mammals of Africa, Vol. 2, T. M. Butynski, J. Kingdon and J. Kalina (eds.), pp.421–422. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

Andriaholinirina, N., Fausser, J.-L., Roos, C., Rabarivola, C., Ravoarimanana, I., Zinner, D., Thalmann,U., Ganzhorn, J. U., Meier, B., Hilgartner, R.,Walter, L., Zaramody, A., Langer, C., Hahn, T., Zimmermann, E., Radespiel, U., Craul, M., Tomiuk, J., Tattersall, I. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the sportive lemurs (Lepilemur, Primates). BMC Evol. Biol. 6: 17.

Andriantompohavana, R. Zaonarivelo, J. R., Engberg, S. E., Randriamampionona, R., McGuire, S. M., Shore, G. D., Rakotonomenjanahary, R., Brenneman, R. A. & Louis Jr., E. E. 2006. Mouse lemurs of northwestern Madagascar with a description of a new species at Lokobe Special Reserve, Occ. Pap. Mus. Texas Tech Univ. (259): 1–24.

Andriantompohavana, R., Lei, R., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Engberg, S. E., Nalanirina, G., McGuire, S. M., Shore, G. D., Andrianasolo, J., Herrington, K., Brenneman, R. A. and Louis Jr., E. E. 2007. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the woolly lemurs, genus Avahi (Primates: Lemuriformes). Mus. Texas Tech Univ., Spec. Publ. (51): 1–59.

Boubli, J. P., Silva, M. N. F. da, Amado, M. V., Hrbek, T., Pontual, F. B. and Farias, I. P. 2008. A taxonomic reassessment of Cacajao melanocephalus, Humboldt (1811), with the description of two new species. Int. J. Primatol. 29: 723–741. 

Brandon-Jones, D. 1995. A revision of the Asian pied leaf monkeys (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae; Superspecies Semnopithecus auratus), with a description of a new subspecies. Raffles Bull. Zool. 43(1): 3–43.

Brandon-Jones, D. 2005. Recent developments in South Asian primate taxonomy. Paper presented at the Indo-US International Workshop for Indian Primates, Jodhpur, India, 12–14 September, 2005.

Butynski, T. M. and de Jong, Y. A. 2007. Distribution of the potto Perodicticus potto (Primates: Lorisidae) in Eastern Africa, with a description of a new subspecies from Mount Kenya. J. East Afr. Nat. Hist. 96(2): 113–147.

Butynski, T. M., de Jong, Y. A., Perkin, A. W., Bearder, S. K. and Honess, P. E. 2006. Taxonomy, distribution and conservation status of three species of dwarf galagos (Galagoides) in eastern Africa. Primate Conserv. (21): 63–79.

Cheng Li, Chao Zhao and Peng-Fei Fan. 2015. White-cheeked macaque (Macaca leucogenys): a new macaque species from Medog, southeastern Tibet. Am. J. Primatol. 77: 753–766.

Choudhury, A. 2008. Primates of Bhutan and observations of hybrid langurs. Primate Conserv. (23): 65–72.

Choudhury, A. 2013. Description of a new subspecies of hoolock gibbon Hoolock hoolock from north east India. Newsl. J. Rhino Foundation for Nature in North East India (9): 49–59.

Colyn, M. 1991. L’ importance zoogéographique du bassin du fleuve Zaïre pour la speciation: La cas des Primates Simiens. Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika, Tervuren, België, Annalen. Zoologische Wetenschappen 264: i–ix, 1–250.

Colyn, M. 1999. Ètude populationnelle de la super-espèce Cercopithecus cephus habitant l’enclave forestière Sangha-Oubangui (République Centrafricaine). Description de C. cephus ngottoensis subsp.nov.) Mammalia 63(2): 137–147.

Craul, M., Zimmermann, E., Rasoloharijaona, S., Randrianambinina, B. and Radespiel, U. 2007. Unexpected species diversity of Malagasy primates (Lepilemur spp.) in the same biogeographical zone: a morphological and molecular approach with the description of two new species. BMC Evol. Biol. 7: 83 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-83.

Dalponte, J. C, Silva, F. E, and Silva-Júnior, J. S. 2014. New species of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903 Primates, Pitheciidae), from southern Amazonia, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, São Paulo 54(32): 457−472.

Davenport, T. R. B., Stanley, W. T., Sargis, E., De Luca, D. W., Mpunga, N. E., Machaga, S. J. and Olson, L. 2006. A new genus of African monkey, Rungwecebus: morphology, ecology and molecular phylogenetics. Science 312: 1378–1381.

Defler, T. R. and Bueno, M. L. 2007. Aotus diversity and the species problem. Primate Conserv. (22): 55–70.

Defler, T. R., Bueno. M. L. and García, J. 2010. Callicebus caquetensis: a new and critically endangered titi monkey from southern Caquetá, Colombia. Primate Conserv. (25): 1–9.

Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M.A. 1992. A new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates) from western Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zool. (12): 1–3.

Ferrari, S. F., Sena, L., Schneider, M. P. C. and Silva Jr., J. S. 2010. Rondon’s marmoset, Mico rondoni sp.n., from southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Int. J. Primatol. 31: 693–714.

Frasier, C. L., Lei, R., McLain, A. T., Taylor, J. M., Bailey, C. A., Ginter, A. L., Nash, S. D., Randriamampionona, R., Groves, C. P., Mittermeier, R. A. and Louis Jr., E. E. 2016. A new species of the Cheirogaleus medius group (Cheirogaleidae) from the Ankarana and Andrafiamena-Andavakoera Massifs, Madagascar. Primate Conserv. (30): 59–72.

Froehlich, J. W., Supriatna, J., Hart, V. Akbar, S. and Babo, R. 1998. The Balan of Balantak: A possible new species of macaque in Central Sulawesi. Trop. Biodiv. 5(3): 167–184.

Fuentes, A. and Olson, M. 1995. Preliminary observations and status of the Pagai macaque. Asian Primates 4(4): 1–4. (See Groves, C. P. 1986. The nomenclature of the Tanzanian mangabey and the Siberut macaque. Australian Primatol. 10(4): 2–5.) (See also: Whitten, A. J. and Whitten, J. E. J. 1982. Preliminary observations of the Mentawai macaque on Siberut Island, Indonesia. Int. J. Primatol. 3: 445–459.

Garbino, G. S. T. 2014. The taxonomic status of Mico marcai (Alperin 1993) and Mico manicorensis (Van Roosmalen et al. 2000) (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) from southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Int. J. Primatol. 35: 529–546.

Geissmann, T., Ngwe Lwin, Saw Soe Aung, Thet Naing Aung, Zin Myo Aung, Tony Htin Hla, Grindley, M. and Momberg, F. 2010. A new species of snub-nosed monkey, genus Rhinopithecus Milne-Edwards, 1872 (Primates, Colobinae), from northern Kachin state, northeastern Myanmar. Am. J. Primatol. 72: 1–12.

Groeneveld, L. F., Weisrock, D. W., Rasoloarison, R. M., Yoder, A. D., and Kappeler, P. M. 2009. Species delimitation in lemurs: multiple genetic loci reveal low levels of species diversity in the genus Cheirogaleus). BMC Evol. Biol. 9: 30.

Groves, C. P. 2000. The genus Cheirogaleus: unrecognized biodiversity in dwarf lemurs. Int. J. Primatol. 21(6): 943–962.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Grubb, P. and Powell, C. B. 1999. Discovery of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) in the Niger Delta with the description of a new and geographically isolated subspecies. J. Zool., Lond. 248: 67–73.

Groves, C. P. and Shekelle, M. 2010. The genera and species of Tarsiidae. Int. J. Primatol. 31: 1071–1082.

Grubb, P., Lernould, J.-M. and Oates, J. F. 1999. Validation of Cercopithecus eythrogaster pococki as the name for the Nigerian white-throated guenon. Mammalia 63(3): 389–392.

A new species of Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae) from the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil. Pap. Avuls. Zool., São Paulo 52(23): 261–279.

Hart, J.A., Detwiler, K.M., Gilbert, C.C., Burrell, A.S., Fuller J. L., Emetshu, M., Hart, T. B., Vosper, A., Sargis, E.J. and Tosi, A.J. 2012. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo’s central basin. PLoS One 7(9): e44271. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044271.

Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana, Zool., n.s. (55): 1–109.

Honess, P. E. 1996. Speciation Among Galagos (Primates: Galagidae) in Tanzanian Forests. Ph.D thesis, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK

Honess, P. E. and Bearder, S. 1996. Descriptions of the dwarf galago species of Tanzania. Afr. Primates 2(2): 75–79.

Hotaling, S., Foley, M. E., Lawrence, N. M., Bocanegra, J., Blanco, M. B., Rasoloarison, R., Kappeler, P. M., Barrett, M. A., Yoder, A. D. and Weisrock, D. W. 2016. Species discovery and validation in a cryptic radiation of endangered primates: coalescent-based delimitation in Madagascar’s mouse lemurs. Mol. Ecol. 25: 2029–2045. Website. http://www.orange.mg/actualite/trois-nouvelles-especes-lemuriens-decouvertes

Jiang, X.-l, Wang, Y.-X. and Wang, Q.-S. 1996. Taxonomy and distribution of Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana). Dongwuxue Yanjiu / Zool. Res., 17(3): 361–369. In Chinese.

Jones, T., Ehardt, C. L., Butynski, T. M., Davenport, T. R. B., Mpunga, N. E., Machaga, S. J. and De Luca, D. W. 2005. The highland mangabey Lophocebus kipunji: A new species of African monkey. Science 308: 1161–1164.

Kappeler, P. M., Rasoloarison, R. M. Razafimanantsoa, L, Walter, L. and Roos, C. 2005. Morphology, behaviour and molecular evolution of giant mouse lemurs (Mirza spp.) Gray, 1970, with description of new species. Prim. Rep. (71): 3–26.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego.

Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Revta. Bras. Zool. 16(2): 531–551.

Lei, R., Engberg, S. E., Andriantompohavana, R., McGuire, S. M., Mittermeier, R. A., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Brenneman, R. A. and Louis Jr., E. E. 2008. Nocturnal lemur diversity at Masoala National Park. Mus. Texas Tech Univ., Spec. Publ. (53): 1–41.

Lei, R., McLain, A. T., Frasier, C. L., Taylor, J. M., Bailey, C. A., Engberg, S. E., Ginter, A. L., Nash, S.D., Randriamampionona, R., Groves, C. P., Mittermeier, R. A. and Louis Jr., E. E. 2015. A new species in the genus Cheirogaleus (Cheirogaleidae). Primate Conserv. (29): 43−54.

Lorini, V. G. and Persson, M. L. 1990. Uma nova espécie de Leontopithecus Lesson, 1840, do sul do Brasil (Primates, Callitrichidae). Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, nova sér. Zoologia, 338:1–14.

Louis Jr. E. E., Coles, M. S., Andriantompohavana, R., Sommer, J. A., Engberg, S. E., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Mayor, M. I. and Brenneman, R. A. 2006. Revision of the mouse lemurs (Primates, Microcebus) of Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 27: 347–389.

Louis Jr., E. E., Engberg, S. E., Lei, R., Geng, H., Sommer, J. A., Randriamampionona, R., Randriamanana, J. C., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Andriantompohavana, R., Randria, G., Prosper, Ramaromilanto, B., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rooney, A. and Brenneman, R. A. 2006. Molecular and morphological analyses of the sportive lemurs (Family Megaladapidae: Genus Lepilemur) reveals 11 previously unrecognized species. Spec. Publ. Texas Tech Univ. (49): 1–47. Website: < http://www.omahazoo.com/ccr/genetics/papers/lepi11.pdf>.

Louis Jr., E. E., Engberg, S. E., McGuire, S. M., McCormick, M. J., Randriamampionona, R., Ranaivoarisoa, J. F., Bailey, C. A., Mittermeier, R. A. and Lei, R. 2008. Revision of the mouse lemurs, Microcebus (Primates, Lemuriformes), of northern and northwestern Madagascar with descriptions of two new species at Montagne d’Ambre National Park and Antafondro Classified Forest. Primate Conserv. (23): 19–38.

Mantilla-Meluk, H. 2013. Subspecific variation: an alternative biogeographic hypothesis explaining variation in coat colour and cranial morphology in Lagothrix lugens (Primates: Atelidae). Primate Conserv. (26): 33–48.

Marsh, L. K. 2014. A taxonomic revision of the saki monkeys, Pithecia Desmarest, 1804. Neotrop. Primates 21(1): 1–165.

doi.org/10.1093/zoolinnean/zlw028

McLain, A.T., Lei, R., Frasier, C. L., Taylor, J. M., Bailey, C. A., Robertson, B. A. D., Nash, S. D., Randriamanana, J. C., Mittermeier, R. A. and Louis Jr., E. E. 2017. A new Cheirogaleus (Cheirogaleidae: Cheirogaleus crossleyi Group) species from southeastern Madagascar. Primate Conserv. (31): 27–36.

Merker, S. and Groves, C. P. 2006. Tarsius lariang: A new primate species from western central Sulawesi. Int. J. Primatol. 27(2): 465–485.

Merker, S., Driller, C., Dahruddin, H., Wirdateti, Sinaga, W., Perwitasari-Farajallah, D. and Shekelle, M. 2010. Tarsius wallacei: A new tarsier species from Central Sulawesi occupies a discontinuous range. Int. J. Primatol. 31: 1107–1122.

Mittermeier, R. A., Schwarz, M. and Ayres, J. M. 1992a. A new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Rio Maués region, state of Amazonas, Central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zool. (14): 1–17.

Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Wilson, D. E. eds. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 3. Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. 951pp.

Munds, R. A., Nekaris, K. A. I. & Ford, S. M. 2013. Taxonomy of the Bornean slow loris, with new species Nycticebus kayan (Primates, Lorisidae). Am. J. Primatol. 75(1): 46–56.

Nadler, T. von. 1997. A new subspecies of douc langur, Pygathrix nemaeus cinereus ssp. nov. Zool. Garten N. Z. 67(4): 165–176.

Nater, A., Mattle-Greminger, M. P., Nurcahyo, A., Nowak, M. G., Manuel, M. de, Desai, T., Groves, C. P., Pybus, M., Sonay, T. B., Roos, C., Lameira, A. R., Wich, S. A., Askew, J., Davila-Ross, M., Fredriksson, G., Valles, G. de, Casals, F., Prado-Martinez, J., Goossens, B., Verschoor, E. J., Warren, K. S. and Singleton, I. 2017. Morphometric, behavioral, and genomic evidence for a new orangutan species. Curr. Biol. 27(2): P3487-3498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.047. 20 November 2017.

Niemitz, C., Nietsch, A., Warter, S. and Rumpler Y. 1991. Tarsius dianae: a new primate species from Central Sulawesi (Indonesia). Folia Primatol. 56:105–116.

Oliveira, M. M. de and Langguth, A. 2006. Rediscovery of Marcgrave’s capuchin monkey and designation of a neotype for Simia flavia Schreber, 1774 (Primates, Cebidae). Bol. Mus. Nac., N.S., Rio de Janeiro (523): 1–16.

Olivieri, G., Zimmermann, E., Randrianambinina, B., Rassoloharijaona, S., Rakotondravony, Gsuchanski, K. and Radespiel, U. 2007. The ever-increasing diversity in mouse lemurs: Three new species in north and northwestern Madagascar. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43(1): 309–327.

Peng-Fei Fan, Kai He, Xing Chen, Ortiz A., Bin Zhang, Chao Zhao, Yun-Qiao Li. Hai-Bo Zhang, Kimock, C., Wen-Zhi Wang, Groves, C. P., Samuel T. Turvey, S. T., Roos, C., Helgen, K. M. and Xue-Long Jiang. 2017. Description of a new species of Hoolock gibbon (Primates: Hylobatidae) based on integrative taxonomy. Am. J. Primatol. 79: e22631. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22631. 15p.

Pontes, A. R. M., Malta, A and Asfora, P. H. 2006.A new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus, Erxleben (Cebidae, Primates): found at the very brink of extinction in the Pernambuco Endemism Center. Zootaxa 1200: 1–12. Website: http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/. Accessed 15 May 2006.

Rabarivola, C., Zaramody, A., Fausser, J.-L., Andriaholinirina, N., Roos, C., Zinner, D., Marcel H. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of a new species of sportive lemur from northern Madagascar. Lemur News (11): 45–49.

Rabarivola, C., Prosper, P., Zaramody, A., Andriaholinirina, N. and Hauwy M. 2007. Cytogenetics and taxonomy of the genus Hapalemur. Lemur News (12): 46–49.

Radespiel, U., Olivieri, G., Rasolofoson, D. W., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotonirainy, O., Rasoloharijoana, S., Randrianambinina, B., Ratsimbazafy, J. H., Ratelolahay, F., Randriamboavonjy, T., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Craul, M., Rakotozafy, L. and Randrianarison, R. M. 2008. Exceptional diversity of mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) in the Makira region  with the description of one new species. Am. J. Primatol. 70: 1–14.

Radespiel, U., Ratsimbazafy, J. H., Rasoloharijaona, S., Raveloson, H., Andriaholinirini, N., Rakotondravony,R.,  Randrianarison R. M. & Randrianambinina, B. 2011. First indications of a highland specialist among mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.), and evidence for a new a mouse lemur species from eastern Madagascar. Primates 53(2): 157–170.

Ramaromilanto, B., Lei, R., Engberg, S. E., Johnson, S. E., Sitzmann, B. D. and Louis Jr., E. E. 2009. Sportive lemur diversity at Mananara-Nord Biosphere Reserve, Madagascar. Occ. Pap., Mus. Texas Tech Univ. (286): 1–22.

Rasoloarison, R. M., Goodman, S. M. and Ganzhorn, J. U. 2000. Taxonomic revision of mouse lemurs (Microcebus) in the western portions of Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 21(6): 963–1019.

Rasoloarison, R. M., Weisrock, D.W., Yoder, A. D., Rakotondravony, D. & Kappeler, P. M. 2013. Two new species of mouse lemurs (Cheirogaleidae: Microcebus) from eastern Madagascar. Int. J. Primatol. 34: 455–469.

Röhe, F., Silva Jr, J. de S., Sampaio, R. and Rylands, A. B. 2009. A new subspecies of Saguinus fuscicollis (Primates, Callitrichidae). Int. J. Primatol. 30(4): 533–551.

Roos, C, Nadler, T. and Walter, L. 2008. Mitochondrial phylogeny, taxonomy and biogeography of the silvered langur species group (Trachypithecus cristatus). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 47: 629–636.

Queiroz, H. L. 1992. A new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben 1977 (Cebidae, Primates), from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zool. (15): 1–13.

Schwartz, J., H. 1996. Pseudopotto martini: A new genus and species of extant lorisiforme primate. Anthropol. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 78: 1–14. (See also Groves, C. P. 1997–1998. Pseudopotto martini: A new potto? Afr. Primates 3(1–2): 42–43; Bearder, S. 1997–1998. Pseudopotto: When is a potto not a potto? African Primates 3(1–2): 43–44; Sarmiento, E. 1997–1998. The validity of “Pseudopotto martini”. Afr. Primates 3(1–2): 44–45.

Shekelle, M., Groves, C. P., Merker, S. and Supriatna, J. 2008. Tarsius tumpara: A new tarsier species from Siau Island, North Sulawesi. Primate Conserv. (23): 55–64.

Shekelle, M., Groves, C. P., Maryanto, I. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2017. Two new tarsier species (Tarsiidae, Primates) and the biogeography of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Primate Conserv. (31): 61–69.

Silva Jr., J. S. and Noronha, M. de A. 1998. On a new species of bare-eared marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777, from central Amazonia, Brazil (Primates: Callitrichidae). Goeldiana Zool. (21): 1–28.

Sinha, A., Datta, A., Madhusudan, M. D. and Mishra, C. 2005. Macaca munzala: A new species from western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Int. J. Primatol. 26(4): 977–989.Supriatna, J. and Hendras, W., E. 2000. Primata Indonesia. Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta. 332pp.

Takacs, Morales, J. C. Geissmann, T. and Melnick, D. J. 2005. A complete species-level phylogeny of the Hylobatidae based on mitochondrial ND3–ND4 gene sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 36: 456–467.

Thalmann, U. and Geissmann, T. 2000. Distributions and geographic variation in the western woolly lemur (Avahi occidentalis) with description of a new species (A. unicolor). Int. J. Primatol. 21(6): 915–941.

Thalmann, U. and Geissmann, T. 2005. New species of woolly lemur Avahi (Primates: Lemuriformes) from Bemaraha (Central Western Madagascar). Am. J. Primatol. 67(3): 371–376.

Thiele, D., Razafimahatratra, E. and Hapke, A. 2013. Discrepant partitioning of genetic diversity in mouse lemurs and dwarf lemurs – biological reality or taxonomic bias? Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 69(3): 593–609. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.07.019

Van Ngoc Thinh, Mootnick, A. R., Vu Ngoc Thanh, Nadler, T. and Roos, C. 2010. A new species of crested gibbon, from the central Annamite mountain range. Vietnam. J. Primatol. 4: 1–12.

Van Roosmalen, M G. M. and Van Roosmalen, T. 2003. The description of a new marmoset genus, Callibella (Callitrichinae, Primates), including its molecular phylogenetic status. Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 1–10.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier, R. A. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1998. A new and distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the lower Rio Aripuanã, state of Amazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zool. (22): 1–27.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new Species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Tapajós/Madeira interfluvium, south central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 8(1): 1–18.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903. with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi. Neotrop. Primates 10(suppl.): 1–52.

Vermeer, J. and Tello-Alvarado, J. C. 2015. The distribution and taxonomy of titi monkeys (Callicebus) in central and southern Peru, with the description of a new species. Primate Conserv. (29): 9−29.

Wang Y., Jiang X. and Lid D. 1998. Classification and distribution of the extant subspecies of golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus [Rhinopithecus] roxellana). In: The Natural History of the Doucs and Snub-nosed Monkeys, N. G. Jablonski (ed.), pp.53–64. Recent Advances in Human Biology, Vol. 4. World Scientific Publishing Company, Singapore. (See also: Wang Y., Jiang X. and Lid D. 1994. Classification of existing subspecies on golden snub-nosed monkey, Rhinopithecus roxellana (Colobinae, Primates). In: Handbook and Absrtracts. XVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 3–8 August 1994, Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, p.277. (Abstract)

 Wallace, R. B., Gómez, H., Felton A. and Felton A. M. 2006. On a new species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas (Primates, Pitheciidae) from western Bolivia with preliminary notes on distribution and abundance. Primate Conserv. (20): 29–39.Wangchuk, T. 2003. Report on the status and distribution of the golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) in Bhutan based on surveys between 1994–2000. Unpublished report to the Nature Conservation Division, Royal Government of Bhutan, Thimphu, Bhutan.

Wangchuk, T., Inouye, D. W. and Hare, M. P. 2003. A new subspecies of golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) from Bhutan. Folia Primatol. 74: 104–108.

Zaramody, A., Fausser, J.-L., Roos, C., Zinner, D., Andriaholinirina, N., Rabarivola, C., Norscia, I., Tattersall, I. and Rumpler, Y. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the eastern woolly lemurs (Avahi laniger). Prim. Rep. 74: 9–22.

Zimmerman, E., Cepok, S., Rakotoarison, N., Zietemann, V. and Radespiel, U. 1998. Sympatric mouse lemurs in north-west Madagascar: A new rufous mouse lemur species. Folia Primatol. 69: 106–114.

 Zinner, D., Roos, C., Fausser, J.-L., Groves, C. P., and Rumpler, Y. 2007. Disputed taxonomy classification of sportive lemurs (Lepilemur) in NW Madagascar. Lemur News 12: 53–56.

 

 

See Groves, C. P. 1997–1998. Pseudopotto martini: A new potto? Afr. Primates 3(1–2): 42–43; Bearder, S. 1997–1998. Pseudopotto: When is a potto not a potto? African Primates 3(1–2): 43–44; Sarmiento, E. 1997–1998. The validity of “Pseudopotto martini”. Afr. Primates 3(1–2): 44–45.