Best Practices

Preventing and Mitigating Human-Great Ape Conflict

Guidelines on the prevention and mitigation of conflict between humans and great apes were the fourth publication in the series of Best Practices for great ape conservation. Written by Drs. Kimberley Hockings and Tatyana Humle, these guidelines focus on an increasingly troublesome issue: the intensifying interactions between humans and great apes, which often flare into conflicts over immediate resources such as food and water. All too often, the ultimate cause of these conflicts is the inexorable expanse of human settlements into the great apes’ remaining forest habitat. With the majority of great apes surviving outside of parks and other protected areas, careful strategies are necessary to avoid conflicts whenever possible, or else to minimize their impact to all involved.

This publication was designed to help researchers and wildlife managers understand the causes of human-great ape conflict, and find equitable ways to resolve it. The authors offer guidance for dealing with two particular aspects of human-great ape interaction – their conflicts over resources, and attacks by great apes on humans. The document provides researchers and wildlife managers with a framework in which to understand such conflicts, as well as a range of options and potential countermeasures to employ. These guidelines are intended not as a simple list of problems and solutions, but as an integrated conceptual structure which has been designed to help wildlife managers address the needs of both great apes and humans wherever they interact.

The full PDFs of this report are available below:

 Hockings, K. and Humle, T. 2009. Best Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Mitigation of Conflict Between Humans and Great Apes. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Prevention and Mitigation of Conflict Between Humans and Great Apes

An erratum to accompany the English version can be downloaded here:

Erratum, Best Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Mitigation of Conflict Between Humans and Great Apes

Hockings, K. et Humle, T. (2009). Lignes directrices pour de meilleures pratiques en matière de prevention et d’attenuation des conflits entre humains et grands singes. Groupe de specialists des primates de la CSE/UICN, Gland, Suisse.

Prévention et d´atténuation des conflits entre humains et grands singes

An erratum to accompany the French version can be downloaded here:

Erratum, Lignes directrices pour de meilleures pratiques en matière de prévention et d´atténuation des conflits entre humains et grands singes

Hockings, K. dan T. Humle (2010). Panduan Pencegahan dan Mitigasi Konflik antara Manusia dan Kera Besar. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Panduan Pencegahan dan Mitigasi Konflik antara Manusia dan Kera Besar

Additional guidelines will be posted on the Best Practices page as they become available.

The Primate Specialist Group gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Arcus Foundation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the production and publication of these guidelines.