Primates of Panama

Taxonomy and Conservation Status
April 2007

Family Callitrichidae

Saguinus geoffroyi Geoffroy's tamarin LC

Family Cebidae

Saimiri oerstedii oerstedii Black-crowned Cent. Am. squirrel monkey EN B1ab(i,ii,iii)
Cebus capucinus capucinus
Cebus capucinus imitator
White-faced capuchin
Panamanian white-thr. capuchin

Family Aotidae

Aotus zonalis Panamanian night monkey DD

Family Atelidae

Alouatta palliata aequatorialis
Alouatta palliata coibensis
Alouatta palliata palliata
Alouatta palliata trabeata
Ecuadorian mantled howling monkey
Coiba Island howling monkey
Golden-mantled howling monkey
Azuero howling monkey
CR B1+2abcde, C2a
Ateles fusciceps rufiventris Colombian black spider monkey VU A1c, B1+2c
Ateles geoffroyi azuerensis
Ateles geoffroyi grisescens
Azuero spider monkey
Hooded spider monkey
CR B1+2abcde, C2a
EN B1+2abcde, C2a


Total Taxa: 12
Total Threatened: 6
Percent Threatened: 50%

Note: This is presented as a working taxonomy and is not definitive.

The conservation status of each species is based on assessment summaries provided by the IUCN Red List. The Red List website offers more information on the threat categories listed here.


Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Rylands, A. B., Groves, C. P., Mittermeier, R. A., Cortés-Ortiz, L. and Hines, J. J. H. 2006. Taxonomy and distributions of Mesoamerican primates. In: New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates, A. Estrada, P. A. Garber, M. Pavelka and L. Luecke (eds.), pp.29-79.