PRIMATES of Brazil

Taxonomy and Conservation Status
January 2007

Family Callitrichidae
Subfamily Callitrichinae

Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris
Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea
Pygmy marmoset LC
Callibella humilis Dwarf marmoset LC
Callimico goeldii Goeldi's monkey NT
Mico acariensis Rio Acarí marmoset LC
Mico argentatus Silvery marmoset LC
Mico chrysoleucus Golden-white tassel-ear marmoset DD
Mico emiliae Snethlage's marmoset LC
Mico humeralifer Tassel-eared marmoset LC
Mico intermedius Aripuanã marmoset LC
Mico leucippe Golden-white bare-ear marmoset DD
Mico maeusi Maués marmoset LC
Mico manicorensis Manicoré marmoset LC
Mico marcai Marca's marmoset DD
Mico melanurus Black-tailed marmoset NE
Mico nigriceps Black-Headed marmoset DD
Mico saterei Sateré marmoset DD
Mico cf. emiliae Rondônia marmoset NE
Callithrix aurita Buffy-tufted-ear marmoset EN B1+2abcde, C2a
Callithrix flaviceps Buffy-headed marmoset EN C2a(i)
Callithrix geoffroyi Geoffroy’s tufted-ear marmoset VU B1+2b, C2a
Callithrix jacchus common marmoset LC
Callithrix kuhlii Wied's black-tufted-ear marmoset LC
Callithrix penicillata Black-tufted-ear marmoset LC
Saguinus bicolor Pied bare-face tamarin CR A2acde
Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi
Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai
Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis
Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus
Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
Ávila Pires’ saddle-back tamarin
Cruz Lima’s saddle-back tamarin
Spix’s saddle-back tamarin
Saddle-back tamarin
Weddelli's Saddle-back tamarin
Saguinus fuscus Lesson’s saddle-back tamarin LC
Saguinus imperator imperator
Saguinus imperator subgrisescens
Black-chinned emperor tamarin
Bearded emperor tamarin
Saguinus inustus Mottle-face tamarin LC
Saguinus labiatus labiatus
Saguinus labiatus rufiventer
Saguinus labiatus thomasi
Thomas’ mustached tamarin

Saguinus martinsi martinsi
Saguinus martinsi ochraceus
Martin’s bare-face tamarin
Ochraceous bare-face tamarin
Saguinus melanoleucus crandalli
Saguinus melanoleucus melanoleucus
Crandall's saddle-back tamarin
White saddle-back tamarin
Saguinus midas Golden-handed tamarin LC
Saguinus mystax mystax
Saguinus mystax pluto
Spix’s mustached tamarin
White-rumped mustached tamarin
Saguinus niger Black-handed tamarin LC
Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis Black-mantled tamarin LC
Saguinus pileatus Red-capped tamarin LC
Leontopithecus caissara Black-faced lion tamarin CR C2a(i)
Leontopithecus chrysomelas Golden-headed lion tamarin EN B2ab(i-v); C2a(i)
Leontopithecus chrysopygus Black lion tamarin CR C2a(ii)
Leontopithecus rosalia Golden lion tamarin EN C2a(i)

Family Cebidae

Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis Bolivian squirrel monkey LC
Saimiri sciureus cassiquiarensis
Saimiri sciureus macrodon
Saimiri sciureus sciureus
Humboldt’s squirrel monkey
Ecuadorian squirrel monkey
Common squirrel monkey
Saimiri ustus Golden-backed squirrel monkey LC
Saimiri vanzolinii Black-headed squirrel monkey VU A3ce; B1ab(i,ii,v)
Cebus albifrons White-fronted capuchin LC
Cebus apella Guianan brown capuchin LC
Cebus cay Hooded capuchin NE
Cebus flavius Marcgraf's capuchin NE
Cebus kaapori Ka’apor capuchin VU A1c, B1+2c
Cebus libidinosus Bearded capuchin NE
Cebus macrocephalus Large-headed capuchin LC
Cebus nigritus Black-horned capuchin NE
Cebus olivaceus Wedge-capped capuchin LC
Cebus robustus Crested capuchin VU B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a
Cebus xanthosternos Yellow-breasted capuchin CR A2cd; C2a(i)

Family Aotidae

Aotus azarae azarae
Aotos azarae infulatus
Azara’s night monkey
Feline night monkey
Aotus nancymaae Ma's night monkey LC
Aotus nigriceps Black-headed or Peruvian night monkey LC
Aotus trivirgatus Douroucouli, owl monkey, night monkey LC
Aotus vociferans Noisy night monkey LC

Family Pitheciidae

Callicebus baptista Lago do Baptista titi LC
Callicebus barbarabrownae Barbara Brown's titi CR B2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i); D
Callicebus bernhardi Prince Bernhard’s titi LC
Callicebus brunneus Brown titi LC
Callicebus caligatus Chestnut-bellied titi LC
Callicebus cinerascens Ashy titi LC
Callicebus coimbrai Coimbra-Filho's titi CR B1ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i); D
Callicebus cupreus Red titi, Coppery titi LC
Callicebus donacophilus Reed titi  
Callicebus dubius Doubtful titi LC
Callicebus hoffmannsi Hoffmann’s titi LC
Callicebus lucifer Rufous-tailed collared titi LC
Callicebus lugens Widow monkey LC
Callicebus melanochir S. Bahian masked titi VU A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1
Callicebus moloch Orabassu titi LC
Callicebus nigrifrons Black-fronted titi NT
Callicebus pallescens Paraguayan grey titi LC
Callicebus personatus Northern masked titi VU A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1
Callicebus purinus Red-bellied collared titi LC
Callicebus regulus
Callicebus stephennashi Stephen Nash's titi LC
Callicebus torquatus White-collared titi LC
Pithecia albicans Buffy saki LC
Pithecia irrorata irrorata
Pithecia irrorata vanzolinii
Gray’s bald faced saki
Vanzolini’s bald faced saki
Pithecia monachus Geoffroy’s monk saki LC
Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala
Pithecia pithecia pithecia
Golden-faced saki
White-faced saki
Chiropotes albinasus White-nosed bearded saki LC
Chiropotes chiropotes Guianan bearded saki LC
Chiropotes israelita Rio Negro bearded saki NE
Chiropotes satanas Black saki EN A2cd; B2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i)
Chiropotes utahickae Uta Hick's bearded saki VU A3cd
Cacajao calvus calvus
Cacajao calvus novaesi
Cacajao calvus rubicundus
Cacajao calvus ucayalii
Bald uakari
Novaes' bald uakari
Red uakari
Ucayali's bald uakari
VU B1ab(iii); C1
VU B1ab(iii); C1
VU B1ab(iii); C1
VU A2cd
Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus
Cacajao melanocephalus ouakary
Black-headed uakari
Spix's black-headed uakari

Family Atelidae

Alouatta belzebul Red-handed howling monkey LC
Alouatta caraya Black howling monkey LC
Alouatta discolor
Alouatta guariba clamitans
Alouatta guariba guariba
Southern brown howling monkey
Northern brown howling monkey
CR B2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i); D
Alouatta juara Juruá red howling monkey DD
Alouatta macconnelli Guianan red howling monkey NE
Alouatta nigerrima Black howling monkey NE
Alouatta puruensis Purús howling monkey NE
Alouatta seniculus Colombian red howling monkey VU B1ab(iii); D1
Alouatta ululata Maranhão red-handed-howling monkey CR C1+2a(i)
Ateles belzebuth White-bellied spider monkey VU A2acd
Ateles chamek Black-faced black spider monkey LC
Ateles marginatus White-whiskered spider monkey EN A4c
Ateles paniscus Guiana black spider monkey LC
Lagothrix cana cana Geoffroy's woolly monkey NT
Lagothrix lagothricha Humboldt's woolly monkey LC
Lagothrix poeppigii Poeppig’s woolly monkey NT
Brachyteles arachnoides Southern muriqui EN C2a(i)
Brachyteles hypoxanthus Northern muriqui CR B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)


Total Taxa: 133
Total Threatened: 29
Percent Threatened: 22%

Note: This is presented as a working taxonomy and is not definitive.

The conservation status of each species is based on assessment summaries provided by the IUCN Red List. The Red List website offers more information on the threat categories listed here.


Aguiar, J. M. and Lacher Jr., T. E. 2003. On the morphological distinctiveness of Callithrix humilis Van Roosmalen et al., 1998. Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 11–18.

Aguiar, J. M. and Lacher Jr., T. E. In press. Cranial morphology of the dwarf marmoset Callibella in the context of callitrichid variability. In: The Smallest Anthropoids: The Marmoset/Callimico Radiation, S. M. Ford and L. C. Davis (eds.). Springer, New York.

Barroso, C. M. L., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Czelusniak, J. and Goodman, M. 1997. Update on the phylogenetic systematics of New World monkeys: Further DNA evidence for placing the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella) within the genus Callithrix. Int. J. Primatol. 18(4): 651–674.

Bonvicino, C. R., Boubli, J. P., Otazu, I. R., Almeida, F. C., Nascimento, F. F., Coura, J. R. and Seuánez, H. N. 2003. Morphologic, karyotypic and molecular evidence of a new form of Chiropotes (Primates, Pitheciiinae). Am. J. Primatol. 61: 123–133.

Boubli, J. P. 2002. Western extension of the range of the bearded saki: a possible new taxon of Chiropotes sympatric with Cacajao in the Pico da Neblina National Park, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 10(1): 1–4.

Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamíferos de América del Sur. Rev. Mus. Argentino de Cienc. Nat. “Bernardino Rivadavia” 4(1): 1–307.

Canavez, F. C., M. M. Moreira, F. Simon, P. Parham and H. N. Seuanez. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of the Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates) based on beta2-microglobulin DNA sequences. Am. J. Primatol. 48: 225–236.

Chaves, R., Sampaio, I., Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Page, S. L. and Goodman, M. 1999. The place of Callimico goeldii in the callitrichine phylogenetic tree: Evidence from von Willebrand Factor Gene Intron II sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 13: 392–404.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1972. Mamíferos ameaçados de extinção no Brasil. In: Espécies da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçadas de Extinção, pp.13–98. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1984. Situação atual dos calitriquídeos que ocorrem no Brasil (Callitrichidae–Primates). In: A Primatologia no Brasil, M. T. de Mello (ed.), pp.15–33. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Brasília.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1985. Sagüi-de-Wied Callithrix kuhli (Weid, 1826). FBCN/Inf., Rio de Janeiro 9(4): 5.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1990. Sistemática, distribuição geográfica e situação atual dos símios brasileiros (Platyrrhini–Primates). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 50: 1063–1079.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands, A. B. 1993a. Experimental multiple hybridism among Callithrix species from eastern Brazil. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Ecology, and Behaviour, A. B. Rylands, (ed.), pp.95–120. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands, A. B. 1993b. Breeding muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) in captivity: the experience of the Rio de Janeiro Primate Centre (CPRJ/FEEMA). Dodo, J. Wild. Preserv. Trusts 29: 66–77.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands, A. B. 1997a. A simulacrum of Saguinus bicolor ochraceus Hershkovitz, 1966, obtained through hybridising S. b. martinsi and S. b. bicolor (Callitrichidae, Primates). In: A Primatologia no Brasil – 5, S. F. Ferrari and H. Schneider (eds.), pp.179–184. Universidade Federal do Para, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belém.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Pissinatti, A. and Rylands, A. B. 1997b. Back-crossing and the preservation of the buffy-headed marmoset (Callithrix aurita flaviceps) Callitrichidae, Primates. In: A Primatologia no Brasil – 5, S. F. Ferrari and H. Schneider (eds.), pp. 204–215. Universidade Federal do Pará, Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belém.

Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B., Kierulff, M. C. M., Mendes, S. L. and Pinto. L. P. de S. In preparation. The taxonomic status of Wied’s black-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii (Callitrichidae, Primates).

Cronin, J. E. and Sarich, V. M. 1978. Marmoset evolution: the molecular evidence. In: Primates in Medicine, Vol. 10, N. Gengozian and F. Deinhardt (eds.), pp.12–19. S. Karger, Basel.

Cropp, S. J., Larson, A. and Cheverud, J. M. 1999. Historical biogeography of tamarins, genus Saguinus: The molecular phylogenetic evidence. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 108: 65–89.

Cruz Lima, E. da. 1945. Mammals of Amazônia, Vol. 1. General Introduction and Primates. Contribuições do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi de História Natural e Etnografia, Belém do Pará.

Defler, T. R. and Hernández-Camacho, J. 2002. The true identity and characteristics of Simia albifrons Humboldt, 1812: Description of neotype. Neotrop. Primates 10(2): 49–64.

Eisenberg, J. F. and Redford, K. H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics, Volume 3: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide. 2nd edition. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Fonseca, G. A. B. da, Herrmann, G., Leite, Y. L. R., Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Patton, J. L. 1996. Lista anotada dos mamíferos do Brasil. Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology, (4). Conservation International, Washington, DC. 38pp.

Fooden, J. 1963. A revision of the woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix). J. Mammal. 44(2): 213–247.

Ford, S. M. and Davis, L. C. In press. Marmoset postcrania and the skeleton of Callibella humilis van Roosmalen et al. 1998: Functional and phylogenetic implications. In: The Smallest Anthropoids: The Marmoset/Callimico Radiation, S. M. Ford and L. C. Davis (eds.). Springer, New York.

Fragaszy, D. M., Visalberghi, E., Fedigan. L. and Rylands A. B. 2004. Taxonomy, distribution and conservation: Where and what are they, and how did they get there? In: The Complete Capuchin: The Biology of the Genus Cebus, D. Fragaszy, L. Fedigan and E. Visalberghi, pp.13–35. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Froehlich, J. W., Supriatana, J. and Froehlich, P. H. 1991. Morphometric analyses of Ateles: Systematic and biogeographic implications. Am. J. Primatol. 25: 1–22.

Gregorin, R. 1996. Variação geográfica e taxonomia das espécies brasileiras do gênero Alouatta Lacépède, 1799 (Primates, Atelidae). Master’s thesis, Departmento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.

Gregorin, R. 2006. Taxonomy and geographic variation of species of the genus Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, Atelidae) in Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 23(1): 64-144.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Groves, C. P. 2004. The what, why and how of primate taxonomy. Int. J. Primatol. 25(5): 1105–1126.

Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd Edition, Vol. 1, D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds.), pp.111–184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Hershkovitz, P. 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia. Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates), with taxonomic revisions of some forms. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 98: 323-427.

Hershkovitz, P. 1966. Taxonomic notes on tamarins, genus Saguinus (Callithricidae, Primates) with descriptions of four new forms. Folia Primatol. 4: 381:395.

Hershkovitz, P. 1977. Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. The Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Hershkovitz, P. 1979. Races of the emperor tamarin, Saguinus imperator Goeldi (Callitrichidae, Primates). Primates 20(2): 277–287.

Hershkovitz, P. 1982. Subspecies and geographic distribution of black-mantle tamarins Saguinus nigricollis Spix (Primates: Callitrichidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 95(4): 647–656.

Hershkovitz, P. 1983. Two new species of night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy. Am. J. Primatol. 4: 209–243.

Hershkovitz, P. 1984. Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys, genus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A preliminary report with description of a hitherto unnamed form. Am. J. Primatol. 7: 155–210.

Hershkovitz,, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomic review of the South American bearded saki monkeys genus Chiropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with the description of a new subspecies. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series (27): iii + 46.

Hershkovitz, P. 1987a. The taxonomy of South American sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary report and critical review with the description of a new species and new subspecies. Am. J. Primatol. 12: 387–468.

Hershkovitz, P. 1987b. Uacaries, New World monkeys of the genus Cacajao (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review with the description of a new subspecies. Am. J. Primatol. 12: 1–53.

Hershkovitz, P. 1990. Titis, New World monkeys of the genus Callicebus (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary taxonomic review. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series (55): 1–109.

Hirsch, A., Landau, E. C., Tedeschi, A. C. de M. and Menegheti, J. O. 1991. Estudo comparativo das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède, 1799 (Platyrrhini, Atelidae) e sua distribuição geográfica na América do Sul. In: A Primatologia no Brasil – 3, A. B. Rylands and A. T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.239–262. Fundação Biodiversitas and Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.

Kellogg, R. and Goldman, E. A. 1944. Review of the spider monkeys. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 96: 1–45.

Kobayashi, S. 1995. A phylogenetic study of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, based on cranial measurements: I. Phyletic groups of Callicebus. Primates 36(1): 101–120.

Kobayashi, S. and Langguth, A. 1999. A new species of titi monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae). Rev. Bras. Zool. 16(2): 531–551.

Konstant, W., Mittermeier, R. A. and Nash, S. D. 1985. Spider monkeys in captivity and in the wild. Primate Conserv. (5): 82–109.

Lemos de Sá, R. M., Pope, T. R., Glander, K. E., Struhsaker, T. T. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1990. A pilot study of genetic and morphological variation in the muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides). Primate Conserv. (11): 26–30.

Marcgrave, G. 1648. Historiae Rerum Naturalium Brasiliae, Libro VI. Leiden: Ioanes de Laet, Elzevier, pp. 221-244.

Marroig, G., Cropp, S. and Cheverud, J. M. 2004. Systematics and evolution of the Jacchus group of marmosets (Platyrrhini). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 123: 11–22.

Mendes, S. L. 1997a. Hybridization in free-ranging Callithrix flaviceps and the taxonomy of the Atlantic forest marmosets. Neotrop. Primates 5(1): 6–8.

Mendes, S. L. 1997b. Padrões biogeográficas e vocais em Callithrix do Grupo Jacchus (Primates, Callitrichidae). Doctoral thesis, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo.

Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1988. Systematics: species and subspecies—an update. In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.13–75. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

Nagamachi, C. Y., J. C. Pieczarka and R. M. de Souza Barros. 1992. Karyotypic comparison among Cebuella pygmaea, Callithrix jacchus and C. emiliae (Callitrichidae, Primates) and its taxonomic position. Genetica 85: 249–257.

Nagamachi, C. Y., J. C. Pieczarka, J. A. P. C. Muniz, R. M. S. Barros and M. S. Mattevi. 1999. Proposed chromosomal phylogeny for the South American primates of the Callitrichidae famaily (Platyrrhini). Am. J. Primatol. 49: 133–152.

Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of the Primates in the British Museum (Natural History). Part I. Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae. British Museum (Natural History), London.

Natori, M. 1990. Numerical analysis of the taxonomical status of Callithrix kuhli based on the measurements of the postcanine dentition. Primates 31(4): 555–562.

Nieves, M., Ascunce, M. S., Rahn, M. I. and Mudry, M. D. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among some Ateles species: the use of chromosomic and molecular characters. Primates 46: 155–164.

Oliveira M. M. de and Langguth, A. 2006. The rediscovery of Marcgrave’s capuchin monkey and a neotype for Simia flavia Schreber, 1774 (Primates, Cebidae). In press.

Pastorini, J., Forstner, M. R. J., Martin, R. D. and Melnick, D. J. 1998. A reexamination of the phylogenetic position of Callimico (Primates) incorporating new mitochondrial DNA sequence data. J. Molec. Evol. 47(1): 32–41.

Peres, C. A., Patton, J. L. and Silva, M. N. F. da. 1996. Riverine barriers and gene flow in Amazonian saddle-back tamarins. Folia Primatol. 67(3): 113–124.

Rylands, A. B. and Brandon-Jones, D. 1998. The scientific nomenclature of the red howlers from the northeastern Amazon in Brazil, Venezuela and the Guianas. Int. J. Primatol. 19(5): 879–905.

Rylands, A. B., Spironelo, W. R., Tornisielo, V. L., Lemos de Sá, R. M, Kierulff, M. C. M. and Santos, I. B. 1988. Primates of the Rio Jequitinhonha valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Primate Conserv. (9): 100–109.

Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1993. Systematics, distributions, and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In: Marmosets and Tamarins: Systematics, Behaviour and Ecology, A. B. Rylands (ed.), pp.11–77. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mittermeier, R. A., Groves, C. P. and Rodríguez-Luna, E. 2000. An assessment of the diversity of New World primates. Neotrop. Primates 8(2): 61–93.

Rylands, A. B, Kierulff, M. C. M. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2005. Some notes on the taxonomy and distributions of the tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus, Cebidae) of South America. Lundiana 6(Supl.): 97–110.

Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. In press. The systematics and distributions of the marmosets (Callithrix, Callibella, Cebuella, and Mico) and callimico (Callimico) (Callitrichidae, Primates). In: The Smallest Anthropoids: The Marmoset/Callimico Radiation, S. M. Ford and L. C. Davis (eds.). Springer, New York.

Schreber, J. C. D. 1774. Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Theil 1, Heft 4, pp. 57-64, pls. 27-34.

Seuánez, H. N., Forman, L., Matayoshi, T. and Fanning, T. G. 1989. The Callimico goeldii (Primates, Platyrrhini) genome: Karyology and middle repetitive (LINE-1) DNA sequences. Chromosoma 98: 389–395.

Silva Jr., J. de S. 1991. Distribuição geográfica do cuxiu-preto (Chiropotes satanas satanas Hoffmannsegg, 1807) na Amazônia Maranhense (Cebidae, Primates). In: A Primatologia no Brasil – 3, A. B. Rylands and A. T. Bernardes (eds.), pp.275–284. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belo Horizonte.

Silva Jr., J. de S. 2001. Especiação nos macacos-prego e caiararas, gênero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae). Doctoral thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. 377pp.

Silva Jr., J. S. and Figueiredo, W. M. B. 2002. Revisão sistemática dos cuxiús, gênero Chiropotes Lesson, 1840 (Primates, Pitheciidae). Livro de Resumos do X Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia, Belém, Pará, p.21. Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Belém.

Silva, Jr., J. S. and Martins, E. de S. 1999. On a new white bald uakari population in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates 7(4): 119–121.

Silva Jr., J. S. and Noronha, M. de A. 1998. On a new species of bare-eared marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777, from central Amazonia, Brazil (Primates: Callitrichidae). Goeldiana Zoologia (21): 1–28.

Tagliaro, C. H, Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I. C., and Stanhope, M. J. 1997. Marmoset phylogenetics, conservation perspectives, and evolution of the mtDNA control region. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14(6): 674–684.

Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I. C. and Stanhope, M. J. 2000. Molecular studies of Callithrix pygmaea (Primates, Platyrrhini) based on transferrin intronic and ND1 regions: Implications for taxonomy and conservation. Genet. Mol. Biol. 23(4): 729–737.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. and Van Roosmalen, T. 1997. An eastern extension of the geographical range of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea. Neotrop. Primates 5(1): 3–6.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. and Van Roosmalen, T. 2003. The description of a new marmoset genus, Callibella (Callitrichinae, Primates), including its molecular phylogenetic status. Neotrop. Primates 11(1): 1–10.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier, R. A. and Fonseca, G. A. B. da. 1998. A new and distinctive species of marmoset (Callitrichidae, Primates) from the lower Rio Aripuanã, state of Amazonas, central Brazilian Amazonia. Goeldiana Zoologia (22): 1–27.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T., Mittermeier, R. A. and Rylands, A. B. 2000. Two new species of marmoset, genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates), from the Tapajós/Madeira interfluvium, south central Amazonia, Brazil. Neotrop. Primates 8(1): 2–18.

Van Roosmalen, M. G. M., Van Roosmalen, T. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two new species, Callicebus bernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotrop. Primates 10(Suppl.): 1–52.

Vàsàrhelyi, K. 2002. The nature of relationships among founders in the captive population of Goeldi’s monkey (Callimico goeldii). Evol. Anthropol. (Suppl. 1): 155–158.

Vieira, C. da C. 1944. Os símios do estado de São Paulo. Papéis Avulsos, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo 4(1): 1–31.

Vivo, M. de. 1985. On some monkeys from Rondônia, Brasil (Primates: Callitrichidae, Cebidae). Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo 4: 1–31.

Vivo, M. de. 1991. Taxonomia de Callithrix Erxleben, 1777 (Callitrichidae, Primates). Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte